The following review and research are on what supplements Dr. Rhonda Patrick is taking for energy and longevity.
Her work on daily health and longevity also applies to ApoE4 gene carriers.
ApoE4 carriers are estimated to make up about 20% of the total population.
A genetic test is needed to find out if someone carries the ApoE4 allele; this is most commonly performed with a saliva test.
Two of the most common good sources for this testing are popular genetic testing websites like 23andme or ancestry.com.
The exact number of people who carry the ApoE4 allele is currently unknown.
However, her studies estimate that it’s around 25% of the population.
On the other hand, the sample size of Rhonda’s paper may not be large enough to draw strong conclusions on this.
Dr. Rhonda Patrick is one of the leading researchers in the field of longevity.
She currently runs a podcast, during which she discusses the topic at length. Additionally, she has discussed these topics on other podcasts and in interviews.
Below is a high-level overview of Dr. Rhonda Patrick’s supplements & Brands that she is recommending!
Dr. Rhonda Patrick’s Supplement List
To begin this review, here is an overview of Dr. Rhonda’s supplement list.
Dr. Patrick’s Daily Supplements Recommendations
All lists below are great to strengthen your immune function:
- Multivitamin – Pure Encapsulations O.N.E: One capsule daily (.)
- Vitamin D3 – Thorne Research: Two capsules daily (.)
- Vitamin K2 – Thorne Research K2/D3 Drops: One drop every two to three days
- Fish Oil – Norwegian PURE-3 DHA: Six capsules daily
- Omega-3 Phospholipids Four capsules daily (.)
- Magnesium – Thorne Research: One capsule daily (.)
ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS THAT DR. RHONDA USES AND RECOMMENDS
- Nicotinamide Riboside: Works to increase cellular mitochondrial function (.)
- PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline Quinone): Used to increase cognitive ability temporarily (.)
- Curcumin Phytosome: Works as a natural anti-inflammatory, which can be used as an alternative to ibuprofen
- Probiotics: Helps improve the health of bacteria in the abdomen
- Hydrolyzed Collagen (Great Lakes): Improves health in the skin and joints
DR. RHONDA’S PREFERRED LIST OF NOOTROPICS
- Choline: Improves mental acuity and brain health
- Lion’s Mane Mushroom: Should be used especially for intense periods of cognitive function (e.g., difficult or intense work)
- Sulforaphane: Derived from broccoli sprouts. It has been linked to improved heart health and digestion.
- Beet Powder – For individuals with high blood pressure (activz organic beet powder brand)
- Wild Salmon Roe Caviar – Organic source of DHA and EPA phospholipids
- Melatonin – Rhonda Patrick doesn’t supplementation with melatonin, but she does suggest this as a strategy if you’re someone over 50 years of age (natural melatonin production goes down ), or if you have a problem sleeping. Rhonda has recommended the Life Extension brand
Few Other Mentions:
Resveratrol – Rhonda invited David Sinclair on her podcast and they were discussing the effects of Resveratrol. Since that time, she has posted a review of Resveratrol on her site. In her recent AMA (Ask Me Anything) discussion, she mentioned Resveratrol and said that she doesn’t currently take it, but is considering this option in the future.
Coconut Milk – she mentioned that the reason she like coconut milk in her smoothies, rather than regular milk, is because milk has salivary proteins that bind to polyphenols and anthocyanins which limits their bioavailability.
Methylated B Vitamins – Swanson’s B Complex – Rhonda has recommended to family and to someone with MTHFR mutation
Metformin – Metformin has been extensively examined in humans for a few decades now. It is prescribed to be taken to fight type 2 diabetes. IIT become popular amongst enthusiasts to extend lifespan and health span. In a podcast with Kevin Rose, Rhonda talks about metformin use for lifespan extension. There is evidence that is responsible for inhibiting lean muscle mass growth while on an exercise program, in comparison to a placebo,
She mentioned that workouts and exercise are more helpful in type 2 diabetes prevention than metformin by referring to a randomized controlled trial. She also challenges the metformin value for a healthy person who regularly exercises regularly.
Health & Longevity Supplement List
Nicotinamide Riboside (NR) is a recently discovered variation of vitamin B3.
NR works by increasing the amount of (NAD+) in the body.
NAD+ is a critical enzyme that is used within the mitochondria of every cell.
Aging, disease, and chronic inflammation naturally decrease the levels of NAD+ in our bodies.
The objective of this supplementation to increase the amount of NR in the body, which will in turn increase NAD+.
As an added benefit, this should make your tissues, organs, and muscles function the way that they would in a younger person.
So far no exact recommendation Rhonda Patrick making in NAD Brand, but I am personally taking True Niagen duet to various studies available and people behind the brand. Read my True Niagen Review.
This supplement can be used as an anti-inflammatory and substituted for more common medications like ibuprofen.
There is no debate that ibuprofen is effective against inflammation and pain relief.
However, long-term use of ibuprofen has been known to produce undesirable side effects.
Dr. Rhonda’s goal for substituting the supplementation in place of a drug like ibuprofen is to enable long-term use without the risks.
Additionally, this supplementation can be made from turmeric root, which is comprised of an organic substance called curcumin.
In order to create the supplementation, curcumin must be removed from the turmeric root and then concentrated.
The curcumin is mixed into a phospholipid to improve absorption and retention by our bodies.
The method by which this supplementation decreases inflammation is unique.
Inflammation is an evolutionary survival mechanism that has been essential for humans. It assists us in fighting illness and healing injuries.
On the other hand, high inflammation, or swelling in places where it should not be, can be problematic or a sign of another problem.
The cytokine is a type of protein found in humans; its function is to monitor cell signals.
These cell signals increase or decrease swelling.
When cytokines have a problem with regulating inflammation levels, the result can be unnecessary inflammation.
Curcumin can delay or stop these problems by regulating inflammation in cytokines.
There are additional uses and benefits to using the supplementation.
Dr. Rhonda mixes organic turmeric into her smoothies, which is a tasty and easy method of adding the supplementation to your diet plan.
Recent research has indicated that curcumin increased memory ability in elderly people who complained of mild memory issues.
The group that received the curcumin showed a twenty-eight percent increase in a specific set of cognitive functions.
Dr. Rhonda never fails to emphasize how critical it is to maintain the health of the gut microbiome.
She takes probiotics every one to two weeks, which are beneficial to the health of abdomen bacteria.
Probiotics should only be used to supplementation the benefits of a healthy diet plan.
They cannot be used exclusively to maintain the health of gut bacteria.
Probiotics can also be useful during pregnancy.
Research has shown that mothers who use probiotics during late-stage pregnancy and nursing had less inflammatory biomarkers.
Dr. Rhonda has been advocating for the use of hydrolyzed collagen powder for several years as anti-aging supplement.
She adds the hydrolyzed collagen into her daily diet by mixing it into smoothies and other drinks, which is similar to the method much use with curcumin.
She initially became interested in hydrolyzed collagen because of a research study that showed peptides in hydrolyzed collagen could be beneficial to joint health.
Recent research has helped gain Dr. Rhonda’s interest in hydrolyzed collagen.
A recent study included 26 healthy participants that showed various signs of aging.
They were given a daily supplementation of one gram of collagen powder over twelve weeks.
The result of the twelve-week supplementation program was a 76% decrease in dry skin and scaling as well as a 13% decrease in facial wrinkles and lines.
Furthermore, participants experienced an 18% improvement in the composition of hemoglobin in their dermis.
These results indicate better microcirculation of the blood.
PQQ (PYRROLOQUINOLINE QUINONE)
Recently, Dr. Rhonda has advocated for the use of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ).
A 2006 Japanese study showed that PQQ increases neurological function, which was measured by the Stroop cognitive test.
Researchers surmised that PQQ increases cognitive function by improving blood flow as well as oxygen metabolism in the right prefrontal cortex.
These findings are particularly encouraging because PQQ is naturally created in the body.
Therefore, utilizing PQQ does not involve adding a foreign substance to your diet.
However, the overall effectiveness of PQQ remains mostly unknown.
Additional studies must be conducted to determine its specific effects on cognitive function.
Rhonda suggested using a cocoa flavanol supplement a while back and then more recently discussed it in her May 2020 podcast.
She mentioned that she’s getting Two capsules of CococaVia every day, especially in the morning, due to it’s small amount of caffeine. She remarks that she has no connection with this particular brand.
She quotes Three possible benefits of cocoa flavanols – enhanced cognition, increased circulation, and changes to the skin (wrinkle reduction and improved skin elasticity).
Research that she mentions to enhanced circulation:
- Dark (85% cocoa), and not milk chocolate, increased walking ability in aged subjects with peripheral artery disease
- Cocoa reduced blood pressure in healthy people, in a dose-dependent fashion
- Heighten strength performance in male cyclists who ate dark chocolate – showing a performance improvement of around 17% vs eating the white chocolate
Rhonda Patrick’s Dietary Nootropic Supplement Stack
Nootropics are substances, supplements, and drugs that are thought to improve neurological ability.
They are particularly useful with the brain’s executive functions, which include memory, creativity, and motivation.
Dr. Rhonda has two main criteria that she uses when evaluating the safety of nootropic supplementation.
- Avoid nootropic supplements that lower enzyme levels.
- Do not use nootropic compounds that are not natural. These criteria were added because newer nootropic supplements have not been studied under enough scrutiny to understand the effects on cognitive function fully.
Here are the three main nootropic supplements that Dr. Rhonda uses and recommends for followers.
LION’S MANE MUSHROOM
Lion’s Mane mushroom is commonly used for its positive neurological effects.
Research has shown that the supplement can improve certain cognitive functions.
Additional research on Lion’s Mane mushroom suggested that it was effective in improving neurological deficiencies within a group of 30 adults who were between ages 50 and 80.
The participants used 3 grams of Lion’s Mane powder per day for a period of 16 weeks.
The participants were tested at weeks 8, 12, and 16 of the study.
At these testing marks, they demonstrated significantly higher levels of neurological function when compared to the placebo control group.
The participants were tested again 4 weeks after ceasing their use of Lion’s Mane powder.
Those test results showed significantly decreased scores for neurological function.
Sulforaphane is a product of a mixture of glucoraphanin & myrosinase. Glucoraphanin is derived from plants and is a phytonutrient.
Additionally, glucoraphanin brings on a beneficial hormetic effect in humans.
When humans consume sulforaphane, it activates the NRF2 pathway of the brain.
The NRF2 pathway improves the expression of several protective cell genes.
These findings come from an incredible study, which also indicates there are even more benefits of NRF2.
Sulforaphane continues to be the center of a wide variety of studies.
The current findings indicate that it has a potential role in extending lives, preventing cancer, and additional health benefits. Jed Fahey of John Hopkins University, one of the best researchers in the area of sulforaphane/NRF2, reminds us to be mindful of which supplement brand to use.
Prostaphane from a French manufacturer seems to be the best option but is not available in the US as of now.
RETRIEVING SULFORAPHANE FROM BROCCOLI SPROUTS
Dr. Rhonda obtains sulforaphane mainly through growing broccoli sprouts.
Additionally, she will use another supplementation as a fail-safe when she does not have enough broccoli sprouts, or her crop fails.
Broccoli sprouts are simple to grow, and Dr. Rhonda shares her growing setup with her followers.
Here are the things you will need to grow broccoli sprouts effectively:
- Ball Mason Jars
- Sprouter Lids
- Natural Broccoli Sprout Seeds
Dr. Rhonda harvests her broccoli seeds every three days; research suggests young sprouts possess increased glucoraphanin compared to older sprouts.
CHOLINE – ALPHA GPC
In a 2017 Tim Ferriss podcast, Rhonda talked about the Three nootropics that she likes and approves of. Nootropics are drugs that have the potential to improve cognitive functions such as memory, concentration, and memory & alertness.
Dr. Rhonda has stated that she consumes Choline supplements in rare instances.
These instances are usually when she must complete a large amount of writing or if there is an event where she will be speaking.
She states that Choline supplements improve her cognitive function.
Dr. Rhonda emphasizes the importance of including organic sources of choline in the diet.
Natural sources of choline include eggs, chicken, broccoli, spinach, and almonds.
Several types of choline supplements can be consumed.
Dr. Rhonda suggests using Alpha GPC because it can cross the blood-brain barrier with ease.
Which Supplements Does Dr. Rhonda Patrick Take on a Daily Basis?
Dr. Rhonda has selected a few supplements that she advocates for using daily, which she also uses in her diet.
- Pure Encapsulations O.N.E. – One capsule daily
Dr. Rhonda takes the Pure Encapsulations O.N.E. multivitamin.
It’s comprised of a broad spectrum of critical micronutrients and contains doses of the essential ones.
Rhonda Patrick Vitamin D Choice – Thorne Vitamin D3
- Thorne Research – D3 (1,000iu): Two capsules daily
Dr. Rhonda sees vitamin D consumption as vital to remaining happy and healthy.
Vitamin D levels play an essential role in serotonin control.
Serotonin controls several executive function features, such as sensory gating and social behavior.
It’s fundamental to consider the amount you take, however.
Consuming too much vitamin D can be harmful while taking too little of it is just as bad.
Finding the correct amount for you is critical to your diet.
The amount of vitamin D that each person should consume is variable and depends on numerous factors. Some of these factors include:
- Sun exposure
- Body composition
- Blood composition
- Thorne Research K2/D3 Drops: One drop every two to three days (1 capsule, 3 times per week)
Vitamin K is essential for the body to produce proteins that encourage blood coagulation. Additionally, it is used in the transportation of calcium for bones and other tissue.
Dr. Rhonda consumes vitamin K2 through the addition of leafy green vegetables to her diet, as well as a lot of vitamin K1.
The supplementation of vitamin K2 acts as a fail-safe in case she is not getting enough vitamin K1.
Low levels of vitamin K can eventually lead to increased blood pressure and the risk of stroke.
Dr Rhonda Patrick Fish Oil Choice – Norvegian Pure
- Norwegian PURE-3 DHA: Six capsules daily
Omega-3s, EPA, and DHA are critical fatty acids.
More precisely, these fatty acids are scattered into cell membranes throughout the body but are the most concentrated in the brain and eyes.
These fatty acids are essential to the mediation of lipids, which can have positive effects and help prevent several diseases.
Furthermore, fatty acids are critical for fetal development and aging.
On her last Joe Rogan Experience podcast, Rhonda mentioned she consumes 6 capsules of n-pure DHA now.
Prior to this, she was taking the Nordic Naturals a before that – omega-3 phospholipids via NOW Neptune Krill Oil.
Dr. Rhonda currently takes her omega-3 phospholipids through Wild Salmon Roe Caviar.
She has made this selection instead of using supplements because the Wild Salmon Roe Caviar is a more organic option.
See this Instagram post and this here where she is talking more about caviar.
Rhonda Patrick Salmon Roe Caviar (Wild)- Vital choice Brand
- Thorne Research – Magnesium Citramate: One capsule daily
Magnesium can be naturally found in leafy green vegetables.
Specifically, magnesium forms a portion of the chlorophyll molecule, which is partially responsible for photosynthesis.
If you see vegetables with a dark green color, they are sure to contain a concentration of magnesium.
Despite it being so natural and widely available, research indicates that roughly 50% of the US population has low or deficient magnesium levels.
Rhonda’s Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Supplement Regimen
Dr. Rhonda has been kind enough to provide a pregnancy and breastfeeding supplement regimen, which is much different from her standard day-to-day regimen.
The pregnancy regimen is the same for the first and second trimesters; it changes in the third trimester. It is important to recognize that the breastfeeding supplement regimen is separate from the pregnancy regimen.
FIRST AND SECOND TRIMESTERS
Dr. Rhonda’s daily supplementation regimen is comprised of supplements that have yet to be researched or studied on women who are pregnant.
Moreover, Dr. Rhonda will not leave anything to chance when it comes to pregnancy, so those supplements are not included in the pregnancy regimen.
Here is Dr. Rhonda’s supplementation regimen for the first and second trimesters.
- Multivitamin: Three capsules / per day
- Fish Oil: Five capsules / per day
- Vitamin D: Two capsules / per day
Here is Dr. Rhonda’s supplement regimen for the third trimester.
As you can see, the multivitamin, fish oil, and vitamin D are the same as the first and second-trimester regimens.
Dr. Rhonda adds a probiotic and possibly an iron supplementation for the third trimester.
As a note, the iron supplement should only be used if blood tests indicate low iron levels.
- Multivitamin: Three capsules / per day
- Fish Oil: Five capsules / per day
- Vitamin D: Two capsules / per day
- Probiotic: One sachet / per day
- Iron Supplement: Not necessary unless blood tests indicate low iron levels
BREASTFEEDING SUPPLEMENT REGIMEN
Research has indicated that pregnant and breastfeeding women need higher amounts of specific nutrients compared to non-pregnant women.
The following list is Dr. Rhonda’s breastfeeding supplement regimen.
- Multivitamin: Three capsules / per day
- Fish Oil: Five capsules / per day
- Probiotic: One sachet / per day
- Vitamin D: Five capsules / per day
- PQQ: One capsule / per day
- Vitamin K2: One drop every two to three days
Rhonda Patrick Multivitamin (Prenatal)
Research has indicated that pregnant women who are given a multivitamin supplement starting in the first trimester of pregnancy had children with higher IQ and verbal comprehension index scores.
These results were compared to women in a control group who did not receive the multivitamin supplement and whose children did not display the same cognitive improvements.
The study responsible for these findings was conducted in a largely unpopulated area of China.
It is possible that the participants lacked nutrients before the start of the study; this could be why the treatment had a significant effect on their children’s IQ.
However, there are plenty of areas throughout the world with people who have low or deficient levels of nutrients.
The findings from this study are significant because it still conclusively demonstrates the importance of multivitamin nutrients on fetal development.
Dr. Rhonda takes this multivitamin because it has some critical benefits:
- Increased folic acid decreases the likelihood of children born with spinal cord defects
- Basic prenatal utilizes optimal levels of iron and iron bisglycinate
- Contains several critical ingredients
- Does not contain any unnatural ingredients
About Joe Rogan Supplements
Joe Rogan supplements his body to obtain his trademark bald head and always comes up with amazing meals. Rogan talks about dieting and the importance of being active in his new book This Is F**king Funny. In an interview, Joe Rogan talks about his vegan diet and goes into detail about supplements. Rogan loves supplements and plays around with every type of supplement. The famous host of UFC talk shows is a huge MMA fan and shows off his physique in his various YouTube videos. Rogan’s diet isn’t perfect, but he admits to eating eggs, bacon, and some McDonald’s breakfast a few times. In his book, he revealed that he isn’t perfect, but is learning how to balance his diet and work on weight loss.
The 62-year-old host of The Joe Rogan Experience takes supplements to gain muscle and strength. Rogan uses Precor and loads of supplements to gain muscle. Rogan had amazing abs in his 20s and can do all kinds of crazy stuff with a personal trainer like deadlifts and squats. Rogan eats like a vegan with one or two meats each week. Rogan doesn’t drink alcohol and the occasional glass of wine with friends. The UFC host cuts out caffeine and likes to juice it up for energy. Rogan said that there is not enough protein in diet sodas and once added it to his diet. He also tried the UFC On Fuel Drip diet that focuses on juicing to help people lose weight and build muscle. When Rogan went on a cruise in Europe, he missed his appetite for snacks and in turn, his pants were getting tighter.
Why is Fish Oil Good?
Fish Oil is not only good for your cardiovascular health and for strengthening your heart muscles, but the omega-3 fatty acids in it also contribute to the maintenance of your brain and the function of your liver. These nutrients are essential to your cardiovascular health as well as to your brain health. And if you are diabetic, your brain health becomes essential as well. Studies have shown that omega-3s from fish oil can reduce the mental decline of patients who are diabetic.
According to the findings of one study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, people who took two grams of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids every day were 47% less likely to have memory decline. Fish oil is also good for the joints. According to research in Arthritis & Rheumatology, supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids can help improve mobility, support the immune system, and improve the function of the knee. Types Of Fish Oil. You can either go for organic fish oil or a supplement with very low amounts of Omega-3 fatty acids.
Is EPA or DHA Better?
People who want to limit their intake of omega-6s in favor of omega-3s often can, at least in part, do so by opting for a plant-based source of omega-3s such as flaxseed, wild-caught Alaskan salmon, walnuts, or pumpkin seeds. While these sources are less expensive and have a more wide-ranging selection, even a raw, form of salmon or a few leafy greens will provide you with omega-3s. Although you might prefer the omega-3s found in beef, chicken, and seafood, considering the environmental impact of raising, killing, and eating livestock, choosing a less-processed protein, such as plant-based sources, might provide you with a health benefit as well.
If your goal is to increase your intake of EPA and DHA, switching to an omega-3 source that is higher in omega-6s might be better than going straight for the highest-strength sources of omega-3s. In a University of Oxford study published in 2013, women consuming diets high in omega-6s (compared to those consuming diets high in EPA and DHA) had significantly higher rates of breast cancer, especially in premenopausal women. In particular, people who consumed diets high in linoleic acid, a common omega-6.
How Rhonda Chooses Supplement Brands
The vitamin and supplement industry is surprisingly unregulated and lacks a unified approval structure.
It is especially surprising considering how strict and regulated the United States FDA is when approving food and medicine.
One would assume that the FDA would enact similar approval regulations for supplements and vitamins.
Dr. Rhonda recommends that individuals purchase supplements and vitamins that are approved by the NSF.
The NSF’s job is to independently evaluate and approve the certification of supplements.
This process is in place to ensure that supplements are not comprised of unlisted ingredients, contaminants, or other harmful elements.
The NSF employs rigorous and strict approval methods. Therefore, NSF certification is an ideal guideline to use when shopping for a supplement.
Rhonda Patrick Supplements COVID
The troubles that American mom-preneur Rhonda Patrick is going through now with her 3D printed, anapestic amphetamine-free kratom herbal supplement could all be attributed to not following federal and state government regulations and/or approval procedures. Apparently, Rhonda’s assertions that kratom is perfectly safe for human consumption have “fallen flat on her face,” reports Daily Mail. The 45-year-old — who says that she’s the highest-earning mompreneur in America — stated that the DEA and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should “come out with regulations” about kratom before she sells it to the public again.
Currently, kratom is only legal to buy and possess in some form in eight states (Arizona, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Vermont, and Wisconsin) and three countries (Australia, Nepal, and China). However, in an effort to help states get on the federal level when it comes to regulating the herb, with the backing of Sen. Ron Wyden (D-Ore.), eight US states including Maine, Massachusetts, Montana, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.
How Much Omega Do You Need Daily?
Getting the right amount of omega-3 can prove to be beneficial in building a strong immune system, and keeping blood sugar levels in control. The lack of this essential nutrient in the body leads to a range of lifestyle disorders, which could even lead to heart diseases and high blood pressure. To maintain a healthy body, it is recommended that you take the following steps.
Flaxseed also called linseeds, contains highly beneficial compounds, which can help you in recovering from any lifestyle disease. Flax seeds are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. The omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, lower blood pressure, and help maintain a normal heart rhythm. Thus, one can reap the maximum benefit of this type of omega 3 by including it in the daily diet. Flaxseeds are also available in capsule form and these can be taken along with them.
Dr. Rhonda Patrick obtained her Ph.D. in biomedical science from the University of Tennessee Health Science Center in Memphis, Tennessee.
Additionally, Dr. Rhonda graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in biochemistry and chemistry from the University of California in San Diego.
She has been involved in a wide variety of studies on aging, cancer, nutrition, and longevity.
Later in her career, she completed studies on aging at the Salk Institute for Biological Sciences.
These studies were designed to figure out the role that insulin signals play in protein misfolding. Protein misfolding is often discovered in neurodegenerative diseases.
Dr. Rhonda often speaks to the public on topics such as micronutrient deficiencies in aging, as well as genetics related to the effects of nutrients on a person’s health.
Additionally, she has studied the benefits of introducing hormetic stressors to the body, such as through exercise, dieting, and multiple varieties of cold exposure. Finally, she studied the significance of mindfulness, stress reduction, and sleep.
Dr. Rhonda’s primary objective is to challenge people’s old ways of thinking. Additionally, she would like to encourage people to think about longevity and health and utilize a preventative approach.
1. Oral administration of (14)C labeled gelatin hydrolysate leads to an accumulation of radioactivity in cartilage of mice https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10498764
2. Effect of the Antioxidant Supplement Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt (BioPQQ™) on Cognitive Functions https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26782228